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PF Glossary of Terms

English Japanese Dictionary

Pulmonary fibrosis:

A lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred.
This thickened, stiff tissue makes it more difficult for your lungs to work properly. As pulmonary fibrosis worsens, you become progressively more short of breath.

(source Mayo Clinic)

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis:

A scarring disease of the lungs of unknown cause. A diagnosis of IPF requires that your doctor cannot find a cause and the presence of a pattern of UIP on either HRCT or a surgical lung biopsy sample. To make a diagnosis of IPF, your doctor will perform a thorough history to try to identify potential exposures or other diseases that might lead to scarring of the lung. If a plausible cause is found, then you do not have IPF.
(source Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation)

Pulse Oximetry

If you have a symptom of shortness of breath or a known lung or heart condition, your doctor may use a pulse oximeter. The pulse oximeter, or Pulse Ox, is an electronic device that measures the saturation of oxygen carried in your red blood cells. Pulse oximeters can be attached to your fingers, forehead, nose, foot, ears or toes.
(Source: American Lung Association)

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs):

Are noninvasive tests that show how well the lungs are working. The tests measure lung volume, capacity, rates of flow, and gas exchange.

There are 2 types of disorders that cause problems with air moving in and out of the lungs:
Obstructive. This is when air has trouble flowing out of the lungs due to airway resistance. This causes a decreased flow of air. (e.g. COPD)

Restrictive. This is when the lung tissue and/or chest muscles can’t expand enough. This creates problems with air flow, mostly due to lower lung volumes. (e.g. Pulmonary Fibrosis)

PFT measures:

Forced vital capacity (FVC). This is the amount of air exhaled forcefully and quickly after inhaling as much as you can.

Total lung capacity (TLC). This is the total volume of the lungs when filled with as much air as possible.

(source: John Hopkins Medicine all above)

Lung Diffusion Capacity Testing (DLCO)
This test measures how well gases (oxygen) move through the lung and into the bloodstream.

(Soure: National Jewish Health)

Pulmonary Hypertension

A type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in your lungs and the right side of your heart.
(source Mayo Clinic)

Lung Transplant

A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other medications or treatments, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved.
(source Mayo Clinic)

Interstitial Lung Disease:

A broad category of over 200 lung diseases that affect  the lung interstitium (walls of the air sacs of the lung). Typically, ILDs causes inflammation, fibrosis (scarring), or an accumulation of cells in the lung not due to infection or cancer.

(source Mayo Clinic)

Autoimmune Lung Disease:

Occurs when the body is attacked by its immune system since it perceives the body’s tissues as foreign invaders. Popular autoimmune diseases include celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), type 1 diabetes, lupus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In the long term, autoimmune diseases are known to have an impact on either one or more organs.

(source Medical Daily)

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Also known as Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, Bird fancier’s lung, Farmer’s lung, Hot tub lung, Humidifier lung

A rare immune system disorder that affects the lungs. It occurs in some people after they breathe in certain substances they encounter in the environment. These substances trigger their immune systems, causing short- or long-term inflammation, especially in a part of the lungs called the interstitium. This inflammation makes it harder for the lungs to function properly and may even permanently damage the lungs. 
(source National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute )

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs)

Are interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology that share similar clinical and radiologic features and are distinguished primarily by the histopathologic patterns on lung biopsy. Classified into 8 histologic subtypes, all are characterized by varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis and all cause dyspnea. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, high-resolution CT imaging, pulmonary function tests, and lung biopsy. 
(source Merck Manual )

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